strFormat


Format


Format control string.


Argument1, Argument2…


Optional arguments.



The string containing formatted data.



The function formats and stores a series of characters and values in Str. Each Argument (if any) is converted and output according to the corresponding format specification in Format. The Format argument consists of ordinary characters, escape sequences, and (if arguments follow Format) format specifications.


A format specification, which consists of optional and required fields, has the following form:

%[flags][width][.precision][{h  l  l64  L}]type


Each field of the format specification is a single character or a number signifying a particular format option. The simplest format specification contains only the percent sign and a type character (for example, %s). If a percent sign is followed by a character that has no meaning as a format field, the character is output to Str. For example, to output a percentsign character, use %%.

The optional fields, which appear before the type character, control other aspects of the formatting, as follows:


type


A required character that determines whether the associated argument is interpreted as a character, a string, or a number.


Character

Type

Output Format

c

integer

Singlebyte character.

d

Integer

Signed decimal integer.

i

Integer

Signed decimal integer.

o

Integer

Unsigned octal integer.

u

Integer

Unsigned decimal integer.

x

Integer

Unsigned hexadecimal integer, using "abcdef."

X

integer

Unsigned hexadecimal integer, using "ABCDEF."

e

floating

Signed value having the form [ – ]d.dddd e [sign]ddd where d is a single decimal digit, dddd is one or more decimal digits, ddd is exactly three decimal digits, and sign is + or –

E

floating

Identical to the e format except that E rather than e introduces the exponent.

f

floating

Signed value having the form [ – ]dddd.dddd, where dddd is one or more decimal digits. The number of digits before the decimal point depends on the magnitude of the number, and the number of digits after the decimal point depends on the requested precision.

G

floating

Signed value printed in f or e format, whichever is more compact for the given value and precision. The e format is used only when the exponent of the value is less than –4 or greater than or equal to the precision argument. Trailing zeros are truncated, and the decimal point appears only if one or more digits follow it.

G

floating

Identical to the g format, except that E, rather than e, introduces the exponent (where appropriate).

s

string

Specifies a character string. Characters are printed up to the first null character or until the precision value is reached.



flag


An optional character or characters that control justification of output and printing of signs, blanks, decimal points, and octal and hexadecimal prefixes. More than one flag directive may appear in a format specification.


Flag

Meaning

Default

–

Left align the result within the given field width.

Right align.

+

Prefix the output value with a sign (+ or –) if the output value is of a signed type.

Sign appears only for negative signed values (–).

0

If width is prefixed with 0, zeros are added until the minimum width is reached. If 0 and – appear, the 0 is ignored. If 0 is specified with an integer format (i, u, x, X, o, d) the 0 is ignored.

No padding.

blank (' ')

Prefix the output value with a blank if the output value is signed and positive; the blank is ignored if both the blank and + flags appear.

No blank appears.

#

When used with the o, x, or X format, the # flag prefixes any nonzero output value with 0, 0x, or 0X, respectively.

No blank appears.


When used with the e, E, or f format, the # flag forces the output value to contain a decimal point in all cases.

Decimal point appears only if digits follow it.


When used with the g or G format, the # flag forces the output value to contain a decimal point in all cases and prevents the truncation of trailing zeros. Ignored when used with c, d, i, u, or s.

Decimal point appears only if digits follow it. Trailing zeros are truncated.


width


An optional number that specifies the minimum number of characters output. If the number of characters in the output value is less than the specified width, blanks are added to the left or the right of the values — depending on whether the – flag (for left alignment) is specified — until the minimum width is reached. If width is prefixed with 0, zeros are added until the minimum width is reached (not useful for leftaligned numbers).

The width specification never causes a value to be truncated. If the number of characters in the output value is greater than the specified width, or if width is not given, all characters of the value are printed (subject to the precision specification).


precision


An Optional number that specifies the maximum number of characters printed for all or part of the output field, or the minimum number of digits printed for integer values.


Type

Meaning

Default

c

The precision has no effect.

Character is printed.

d, i, u, o, x, X

The precision specifies the minimum number of digits to be printed. If the number of digits in the argument is less than precision, the output value is padded on the left with zeros. The value is not truncated when the number of digits exceeds precision.

Default precision is 1.

e, E

The precision specifies the number of digits to be printed after the decimal point. The last printed digit is rounded.

Default precision is 6; if precision is 0 or the period (.) appears without a number following it, no decimal point is printed.

f

The precision value specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. If a decimal point appears, at least one digit appears before it. The value is rounded to the appropriate number of digits.

Default precision is 6; if precision is 0, or if the period (.) appears without a number following it, no decimal point is printed.

g, G

The precision specifies the maximum number of significant digits printed.

Six significant digits are printed, with any trailing zeros truncated.

s

The precision specifies the maximum number of characters to be printed. Characters in excess of precision are not printed.

Characters are printed until a null character is encountered



I=225

F=3.14159

Txt="Format test"

Str=strFormat("%s: integer %d, floating %5.3f", Txt, I, F)

Print Str
